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^inh 2012070100 monograph
Synopsis of Musical Notation Encyclopedias

1          Our Grouping of Publications on Musical Notation
2          Short Survey on the Non-Encyclopedic Works
2.1          Traditional Notation and Computers
2.2          Extended and Advanced Contemporary Notation
3          Synopsis of the Major Encyclopedias on Traditional Music Notation
3.1          The Books Considered
3.2          Publications Not (Yet) Considered Herein
3.3          Structure of the Tables
3.4          Table of General Topics
3.5          Table of Topics Specific for Families of Instruments or Types of Notation
4          References

^Inh 1 Our Grouping of Publications on Musical Notation

This article gives a comparison of works on traditional western musical notation.
This method of writing down music is also called "common Western notation", "conventional Western notation", "CWN" / "bar based notation" [German "taktbasierte Notation"], "orthochronic notation" (Chailley, according to [gieseking, , pg. 20]). It had been started in Western Europe in the seventeenth century, by enhancing the medieval "mensural notation" by bar lines and ties ([readNotation, , pgs. 110,183] )
(Up to then, the only means for calculating durations had been divisions, the nesting of which had reached an incredible level of complexity. The new "tie" symbol introduced the operation of free addition, allowing to notate every thinkable duration. Thus bar lines became necessary as the new fundamental orientation mark in the now possible sequences of "arbitrarily long" note events.)

Today CWN includes all those extensions developed during the last centuries, in classical and romantic Western composition, up to contemporary avantgarde and electro-acoustic music.
For sake of shortness, this whole area will simply be called "music notation" in the following.

Here we look at published books which want to pre-scribe the rules for correct music notation, partly restricted to hand-writing, partly to engraving, but in most cases related to both.

We found the following grouping of the related publications sensible:

  1. Works with encyclopedic claim, trying to cover all possible questions on notation in a systematic way.
    Since they all claim to treat the totatlity of all relevant questions, ideally, their "tables of contents" could be expected to be mere mutual permutations, and the answers they give to be widely identical. So these works are natural candidates for a synopsis, and that is the main contents of this article.
  2. Books dealing with computer-based solutions of notational problems.
  3. Books presenting extensions and alternatives to traditional notation.
  4. Books on the fundamental philosophy of notation.

The first group is, as said, the main topic of this article.
But before we come to this central section, some books of the groups 2 and 3 will be presented briefly.
Group 4, the fundamental philosophy of notation, is spared for a dedicated later article.

^Inh 2 Short Survey on the Non-Encyclopedic Works

^Inh 2.1 Traditional Notation and Computers

Astonishingly few books deal with computer-based solutions of notational problems.
We found [byrd] , [gieseking] and [grover] .

(Please note that we treat [wanske] as an encyclopedic work, but not in this group, because the computer related parts of this valuable book are almost completely out-dated.)

The dissertation "Music Notation by Computer by Donald Alvin Byrd, [byrd], describes the author's computer notation system "SMUT", into which he invested fifteen years of research and programming labour. It had been part of a collection of software used by his university, but probably has vanished nowadays. This would be a pity, because the output examples look very convinving.
The book as such is valuable for the introduction, which tries the hard job of explaining musical notation to non-musicians, and which contains carefully selected examples which prove, that "FAHQMN", "fully automatic high quality music notation" can never be achieved.
In the algorithmic part esp. the treatment of "correct notation of rhythms w.r.t. a metric" is of general value. The work [gieseking] refers to this part, and both works will be the basis for our own contribution to this topic in senza tempo 2012 10 27 00 --- Metrisch korrekte Notation von Rhythmen,

The title of "A Computer Oriented Description of Music Notation" by John Grover [grover] does promise much more than the contents keep: It is a technical report which presents two algorithms as solutions to two very specific problems: (1) the placement of noteheads and augmentation dots which belong to multi-note chords, in the case of two-stemmed notation in one single stave, and (2) the arrangement of accidentals preceding such chords.
The work comes in three volumes, together about 280 pages, and is, in its limited scope, a very valuable contribution.
(We wonder whether these solutions have been implemented in any commercial product ?-)

The work of Gieseking is in German language, it deals, as it title says, with automated generation of music notation for interactive educational computer programs.

Both parts of the book are valuable:
First there is an introductory part about the historic evolution of music printing, type setting and engraving, and on the most successful computer programs in this field.

The special part is much larger and presents algorithms for the most basic problems:

  1. arrangement of multi-note chords in double-stemmed writing,
  2. positioning of accidentals and duration dots,
  3. break-down of note values ...
  4. and of beams according to meters,
  5. line breaking and horizontal spacing,
  6. slur construction.

For the line break problem the author refers a standard solution (Hegazy and Gourlay, 1987), and for the rhythmic notation w.r.t. a metric he continues the work of [byrd] . The other algorithms are very lean and mostly elegant original contributions.

^Inh 2.2 Extended and Advanced Contemporary Notation

The books in this group are about alternatives and extensions to musical notation.

"Pictographic Score Notation" by Gardner Read [readPicto] restricts itself nearly completely to symbols for instruments, and plans for the placement of instruments. It is not so very exciting.

"20th-century Microtonal Notation" [readMicro] by the same author: The title is misleading, the book also speaks about the origins of micro tonal music in the seventeenths century, and it is not only about notation, but touches also the fundamentals of micro tonal composition, calculation, physiologics, reception, etc. It seems a valuable book for experts in this area, -- we are not!

"Source Book of Proposed Music Notation Reforms" by the same author is an overwhelming compilation of threehundred-ninety-one(391) proposals for new notational systems from the last threehundred years.
The deeper reasons, why hardly one of them survived, and why the conventional system is, despite its deficiencies, still unbeatable, is discussed thoroughly in the introductory chapters, and in the literature quoted therein.
Then the proposals are presented in short, sorted by basic strategy, and chronologically.
It is funny reading!
But it is also relevant for serious research on notation: Many of the system, in spite of having failed historically, offer interesting insight into the structure of notation in general, and even into the qualities of the critizised conventional system they want to replace.

(One really annoying aspect coming with most of these "improvements" and with their presentation by Mr. Read is discussed separately in senza tempo 20120822 00 , in German language.)

An important collection is "Darmstädter Beiträge zur Neuen Musik, Volume IX, Notation", [darmstadt65] .
With [dahlhaus_notenschrift] and [ligeti_notation] it contains two fundamental articles about the philosophy of notation, followed by articles by famous performers on notation issues special for their instrument (string, piano, percussion).

^Inh 3 Synopsis of the Major Encyclopedias on Traditional Music Notation

^Inh 3.1 The Books Considered

Main subject of this article are the books on CWN which try to be comprehensive, i.e. to cover all aspects of notation. The works considered here, in chronological order, are [readNotation] , [stone] , [wanske] , [vinci] and [gould] . They all claim to be encyclopedic! The newest of them even calls itself "the definitive guide" in its title!

Most of them consist of a first general part, and a second with rules specific for certain families of instruments, incl. the human voice and electro-acoustics, or certain ensembles, etc.

Some, but not all of them operate with real examples from musical history and existing engravings.

Some of them appeared in recent times, some are already forty years old.
All of them are nice to read, but in the end, all these books will (mostly) tell you the same! This motivated us to write this synopsis article, comparing the major works in this area.

There are only a few questions for which different books give contradictory rules. One can assume that these questions are the real interesting ones !-)
Astonishingly, there are still relevant details covered only by one of them! So far with "definitive" and "encyclopedic" !

As you can see in the bibliograhy, all books are in the English language, except [vinci] , which we read in a German translation, and [wanske] , which is written in German and has (as far as we know) never been translated.

Here a short characterization of these works, in reverse historical order, as they appear in the synopsis table:

Most recent is the book by Gould [gould] . It has more than sixhundred pages, treating engraving of music. The first half deals with notation in general. The second part treats rules and symbols special for different families of instruments.

In both parts, most rules are about the optical appearance of the notation text. But with many rules, the author gives reasons for the rules, nearly always coming out of execution pragmatics. Partly, these reasons reach into areas which could be called semantics of notation.

The work contains also a chapter dedicated to electro-acoustic music. Since the other works are significantly older, and the last decades brought revolutionary changes, comparison is not sensible w.r.t this special topic.

The large chapter on vocal text presentation (pg. 437 pp.) is unique and left out in this article, esp. because it is limited to English lyrics (which no-one really wants to hear outside pop music !-)

The book by Vinci [vinci] is comparatively small, also quite recent, and focused on hand-writing of music. Nevertheless, the topics (and even partly their sequential order) are the same as in the much larger, preceding one.

The work by Wanske [wanske] again treats engraving. It is a historic attempt to prepare for a note engraving computer software. While the technological aspects are totally outdated, the book is still relevant in different respects:
First, the author has led interviews with engravers from big publishing companies, to collect, publish and thus preserve their professional knowledge.
Second, aiming at a software solution, the author tries a first systematic approach:
(a) the basic symbols are grouped according to different aspects (internal graphical syntax, constant vs. variable geometry, category w.r.t. meaning).
(b) the rules for combining these basic symbols are also tried to systematise by introducing a notion of "chaining" [dt. "Verkettung"]. This is without any doubt an adequate approach.
Thirdly, the author gives mathematical models for selected details, like matrices and derivation rules for basic symbols, possible relations of note heads, calculation of beam angle, calculation of slur contour, etc.

Therefore this book is still a paradigmatic approach to the very complex problem of musical notation.
This book is not organized along the different parameters of music, like most others, and like our synopsis table, but the logic of combination and position calculation. Therefore the page references in the table below appear rather scattered.

The book by Stone [stone] is special because it explicitly covers hand-writing and engraving, and lists differences explicitly.
It also consists of a first general part, and a second part specific to families of instruments. Its main focus is on modern techniques, but of course the basic is still CWN, as defined above.
The structure is confusing: The second level are chapters, related to major fields like "Pitch", "Rhythm", "Scores". But the organization one level below follows the names of concepts in alphabetical order.

Very welcome and unique are some sections with more fundamental discussions from strategical and philosophical view point: About the different possible relations of new music's time organization and traditional metric notation (pg. 81 pp.), about different strategies for using beaming (pg. 114), etc.

The chapter on the harp is much more detailed than the rest of the book, it can serve as a hand-book for modern harp playing techniques! Since it is unique, we have ignored it for the purpose of this synopsis.
The same applies to the (valuable) chapter on keyboard reduction [dt. Klavierauszug].

The work by Read [readNotation] starts with a short survey on the history of notation, but in its main part again tries to establish a systematic linear order.
It covers hand-writing (as opposed to the rules for engraving) in a dedicated chapter.
It is the only one of all the books which comes with practical notation excercises at the end of each chapter.

The author is more a composer than a philosopher or mathematician. See e.g. the remark about the graphic appearance of second intervals in a chord on pg. 71:
"Observe that the "adjacent" tone (which creates the interval of the second) is placed to the right of the chord when ..."
This is of course pure non-sense! How can one single note ever "create an interval"?

In spite of flaws like this, it is a very valuable and famous book and covers many aspects which got lost by its successors, as it is clearly shown by the lines in the following tables which have only one single entry!

^Inh 3.2 Publications Not (Yet) Considered Herein

The author of [wanske] frequently refers to [hader] as an important preceding standard publication.
In a similar way [gould] and [stone] frequently refer to [ross] .

We have not yet been able to get hold of these two books, but perhaps they are so good that they will require a future extension of this article.

The book [heussenstamm] by George Heussenstamm is lovely to read! He talks exclusively about calligraphic hand-writing and extensively about choosing the right ink and the fitting eraser.
In our context the diagrams are valuable which give a survey over many different topics at one glance, very compressed in space.

^Inh 3.3 Structure of the Tables

The following tables try to list fine-granular questions/topics, and refer to the pages where these are answered/treated in the different books. As a reference we give the number of the page where the explanation starts. This number refers to the edition from the bibliographic list below, but different editions should not vary suprisingly.

The list basically follows the sequential arrangement of topics from [gould] , because it is the latest publication with the most differentiated structure. This inspite of some minor objections we do have (e.g. the topics concerning the general score layout are rather late, "freedom and choice" is extracted from the general discussion of time and tempo, some topics are doubled at different places, and not always in a consistent way.). Nevertheless we decided that it should not be the function of such a synopsis article to establish a new and different linear view. Some minor of these dislocations have been silently corrected, partly by doubling, as can be seen easily in the first column of page numbers in the tables below.

Indeed, a really adequate index would have to be multi-dimensional, because most questions arise from a combination of different topics, eg. accidentals with horizontal alignment, overlapping parts with articulation, tuplets with changing metrics, etc.
To create such an indexing system would require substantial effort, because a simple two-dimensional matrix does not suffice:

First, the conflicting entities may reside in very different realms: e.g. concrete graphems with concrete geometries may be combined or collide with semantic concepts, valid only in certain periods of style and history (like in the rule "accidentals for two notes in a chord in different octaves but with the same note name [dt. Stammton] must align.").

Second, in many cases the combination of more than just two(>2) concepts (may they be graphical, semantical, ergonimical etc.) create the interesting question ("tied notes with accidentals together with clef change and line break in the middle of the bar").

Third, the meta-classification of the kinds of questions and rules has significant impact on the meta-rules for combining and priorizing the rules. Questions like "How are the graphems arranged geometrically to realize this specific notation variant?" and "Is it advisable to choose this notation variant for an oboist?" are of very different nature! The questions of these various classes are considered or not left out in the various books following very different strategies!

So the problem is in deed too complicated to be solved by simple two-dimensional tables, as we present herein. Nevertheless, these tables may serve well two purposes:
First, they may be valuable indexes for finding the answers for given questions when using one or more of these books, and
secondly, they show at one glance gaps and special merits.

So for every question involving more than one concept (and that will be the majority) the reader has to search at all the different places.

The wording and spelling of notions, questions and topics have been taken from the book coming first in the list. Eg., [gould] says "stave" and "staves", not "staff", and so we overtook this spelling. [gould] again says "ledger lines", vs. [stone] "leger lines", [gould] says "tails", vs.[readNotation] "flags".

More substantial, [gould] takes the word "bar" for the time duration between two "bar lines" (c.f. pg. 41), while [readNotation] insists that the only correct word for this time section is "measure", while "bar" is just a synonym for "bar line" (pg. 184).

But with the naming of duration values we insist on the logical way, using whole, half and quarter, and do not follow [gould] with "semi-quaver", "crotchet" and all this medieval crypticism.

We tried to cover the first and general parts of all books completely, while aiming at a sensible level of granularity, having in mind that the "problem of an adequate index", as sketched above, cannot be solved in a short article like this.
Contrarily, in the second, specific parts we were very selective and considered only the topics of general interest. We completely left out the chapters on piano reduction and on lyrics in vocal music.

^Inh 3.4 Table of General Topics

This first table refers to the general topics.
We tried to be exhaustive, with a reasonable level of granularity.

question/topic [gould] [vinci] [wanske] [stone] [readNotation]
Strategic dimension:
Different roles and functions of notation.
pg. 83, 273, 310
Different levels of complexity due to style/epoche/genre/instruments etc. pg. 85
Graphic Basics: Rastral numbers [dt. Rastral-Größen] pg. 483 pg. 12 pg. 96
What are the fundamental graphical measures in notation? pg. 5 pg. 95 pg. 44
What are the main kinds of staves [dt. Systeme] and their role? pg. 5 pg. 11 pg. 102 pg. 22 pg. 27
...changing to unpitched notes midways pg. 22, 79
...horizontally incomplete staves pg. 39
...staves ending not with a bar line. pg. 313
What are the tone-defining/tone-less clefs [dt. Schlüssel]
...and where are they positioned vertically ?
pg. 5 pg. 17 pg. 45, 102 pg. 56 pg. 53, 423
...and where are they positioned horizontally ? pg. 6 pg. 18
...and for which instruments are they used? pg. 7 pg. 72 pg. 53, 293, 303, 339, 356
Should a clef change be positioned
... at the start of a piece?
pg. 7
... w.r.t. line breaks ? pg. 7 pg. 20 pg. 46, 57
... w.r.t. bar lines ? pg. 8 pg. 20 pg. 254 pg. 46, 57
... w.r.t. repeat lines ? pg. 234
... w.r.t. groupings of notes/phrases ? pg. 8 pg. 58
... w.r.t. groupings of pauses ? pg. 8
... w.r.t. tied notes ? pg. 9
... w.r.t. beams ? pg. 23
>1 clef in 1 stave pg. 59, 355
Noteheads [dt. Notenköpfe]
... shape and orientation
pg. 9 pg. 23 pg. 31, 36 pg. 63
... size pg. 10 pg. 36
Cross/Diamond note heads, shape, size and orientation pg. 11 pg. 30
Triangular note heads pg. 13 pg. 31, 65, 294 pg. 405
Proposed alternatives pg. 75
Basic durations [dt. Dauern] of note symbols pg. 38 pg. 64 pg. 65
Stem [dt. Hals, Stiel] direction (one part per line, incl chords) pg. 13 pg. 34 pg. 106 pg. 49 pg. 64
Stem length pg. 14 pg. 23 pg. 41, 101, 187 pg. 47 pg. 64
...when note head outside staff pg. 14 pg. 66
...when stem points out of staff (>1 part) pg. 14 pg. 188
common stems for isorhythmic group pg. 162
Dimensions and positions of tails [dt. Fähnchen] . pg. 15 pg. 24 pg. 41 pg. 67, 79
...conflicting with ledger line pg. 16
Position of tail enlarges stem pg. 16 pg. 106 pg. 48 pg. 67
Dimensions and positions of beams [dt. Balken]. pg. 17 pg. 25, 55 pg. 42 pg. 9 pg. 80, 88
...of fractional beams pg. 17 pg. 60 pg. 12 pg. 84
...affecting stem lengths? pg. 18, 21 pg. 61 pg. 163 pg. 48
How are horizontal beams positioned w.r.t the stave-lines? pg. 17 pg. 55 pg. 25, 42, 161 pg. 9
How are horizontal beams positioned w.r.t ledger lines? pg. 19 pg. 56 pg. 66
What is the degree of beam angle (possibly ==0)? pg. 19, 22 pg. 58 pg. 26, 155, 398 pg. 88 case of chords? pg. 24
What is the stem direction with beams? pg. 24 pg. 154 pg. 50
How are angled beams positioned w.r.t the stave-lines? pg. 20 pg. 60 pg. 25, 161 pg. 10
What about beams when note heads are on ledger lines? pg. 21 pg. 161
What about beams outside staff (>1 part) pg. 21 pg. 26, 161
When can beams be divided for interval reasons? pg. 25 pg. 86
...for practical/execution reasons? pg. 169 pg. 169, 193, 195 pg. 85, 306
What about opposite stem direction on the same beam one(1) line?
pg. 26 pg. 13 pg. 89 two(2) lines, i.e. piano system? pg. 314 pg. 12 pg. 307
Beams across rests pg. 36, 164 pg. 62 pg. 15 pg. 102
Beams integrating rests [dt. verbalkte Pausen] pg. 165 pg. 62 pg. 15 pg. 93
beams for varying speed pg. 158 pg. 4, 124, 141 pg. 94
Dimensions of ledger lines? [dt. Hilfslinien] pg. 26 pg. 30, 50 pg. 30 pg. 43, 422
... with chords and operlapping parts pg. 27 pg. 20
... with chords containing second intervals pg. 27 pg. 21
Octave signs [dt. Oktav-Vesetzung],
orthography, placement, extension lines, w.r.t. line breaks
pg. 28 pg. 276 pg. 25, 44 pg. 45, 422
Octavating clefs pg. 32 pg. 55
coll 8va pg. 32 pg. 47
When to use octavation vs. ledger lines / in score vs. parts pg. 32 pg. 47, 57
Rests [dt. Pausen], design and size pg. 34 pg. 26 pg. 44, 104 pg. 96. 424
...vertical placement (1 part per staff) pg. 35 pg. 27 pg. 97
...vertical placement (>1 part) pg. 36 pg. 27 pg. 170 pg. 97
...sharing when >1 part pg. 36, 528 pg. 27
Geometry of bar lines [dt. Taktstriche] of different kinds pg. 38 pg. 63 pg. 65, 104, 120 pg. 8 pg. 182, 312
...non-aligned positioning pg. 489 pg. 65 pg. 8
...between staves, not crossing them [dt. Mensuralstriche] pg. 215
dotted bar lines for metre subdivision pg. 179 pg. 8 pg. 217, 312
Rhythmic horizontal spacing [dt. horizontale Anordnung] pg. 39, 200 pg. 48 pg. 98, 108, 110, 203, 278 pg. 47, 135 pg. 187
Adjust spaces of changing stem direction pg. 41 pg. 108, 135
General horizontal spacing rules
...between clef, key signature, time signature at beginning of line
pg. 41 pg. 96 pg. 128, 254 pg. 44
...around those, in the middle of line pg. 42 pg. 128 pg. 46
...preceding very first note in line pg. 41
...accidentals and note spacing. pg. 41 pg. 128, 133, 198 pg. 46
alignments of notes(objects) in parallel lines pg. 490 pg. 109, 143, 256 pg. 46
horizontal spacing, general pragmatic considerations pg. 487 pg. 263
vertical spacing, general pragmatic considerations pg. 487, 523 pg. 268
(Single-stemmed) chords [dt. Akkorde], conditions pg. 47
...stem direction pg. 47 pg. 35 pg. 69
chords containing a second interval pg. 48 pg. 36 pg. 172 pg. 71
chords containing more than one second intervals pg. 49
two chords containing second intervals pg. 49 pg. 36 pg. 71
single-stemmed unisons pg. 50 pg. 78
single-stemmed unisons with alteration (eg. cluster) pg. 50 pg. 73, 90
Double-stemmed writing [dt. zweistimmige Notation]
unisons sharing note heads pg. 52 pg. 177 pg. 78, 165 pg. 68, 342
shared rests pg. 37, 311, 528 pg. 343
unisons with separate note heads / seconds pg. 53 pg. 37 pg.78
overlapping parts [dt. Stimmkreuzung] pg. 53 pg. 37 pg. 175 pg. 164 pg. 344
...with two stemless notes pg. 53
detailed discussion of offsetting conflicts in free keyboard writing pg. 175 pg. 70
crossing of beams and stems, since parts>2 pg. 198
Dotted notes [dt.Punktierungen] ...
pg. 51 pg. 60 pg. 113
...positioning with single notes pg. 54 pg. 52 pg. 118 pg. 115
...positioning with chords and seconds pg. 55 pg. 54 pg. 115
...with double stemmed writing
pg. 56 pg. 177, 185 pg. 125, 164 pg. 69, 344
dots, double-stem and seconds / overlap / both pg. 57 pg. 187
dotted unisons -- single stem, double stem, cluster pg. 58 pg. 52 pg. 186 pg. 78, 125 pg. 69
dots crossing bar lines (e.g. Brahms) pg. 117
dotted rests
...visual appearance
pg. 38 pg. 54 pg. 105 pg. 119
Ties [dt. Haltebögen]
...geometry and position
pg. 60 pg. 74 pg. 29, 48, 231 pg. 36 pg. 110
...between enharmonics pg. 60 pg. 75 pg. 231 pg. 111
Tie direction and placement
...for single notes
pg. 60, 64 pg. 231
...together with articulation pg. 62 pg. 237 pg.43
...position with dots pg. 63 pg. 121
...and line breaks pg. 65, 112 pg. 76 pg. 37
...for chords pg. 61, 64 pg. 77 pg. 84, 206, 232 pg. 40 pg. 112
...for double stem writing pg. 67, 69 pg. 78 pg. 167 pg. 344 overlap pg. 67
...with ledger lines pg. 68
...with unisons pg. 69
Ties with moving chords [dt. Tonwechsel] pg. 70 pg. 41
Ties crossing stems pg. 63, 68 pg. 113
Open ties / laissez vibre / Pfte Pedal pg. 72 pg. 122
Ties graphically in two(2) parts pg. 68, 72 pg. 122
dotted lines for ties (with tremolo, etc) pg. 225, 338 pg. 113 pg. 35 pg. 123, 391
Accidentals [dt. Vorzeichen], design and placement pg. 77 pg. 85 pg. 43, 81, 104 pg. 53 pg. 125, 424
Scope [dt. Geltungsbereich] (affected by change of clef, octave, stave, voice) pg. 79 pg. 88, 90 pg. 53, 55, 167 pg. 129, 131
Alternative scoping practices (eg. dodecaphonic) pg. 81, 86 pg. 55
Spelling chromatic scales pg. 85 pg. 89
Spelling recommendations in non-tonal contexts pg. 85
Accidentals and ties / over bar line / over line break pg. 80 pg. 91 pg. 276 pg. 54 pg. 131
Orthography of cancellation [dt. Auflösung] pg. 81 pg. 87 pg. 53
Cautionary accidentals [dt. Sicherheitsvorzeichen] pg. 82, 85 pg. 88 pg. 55 pg. 130
Accidentals and grace notes [dt. Vorschlagsnoten] pg. 84
Accidentals for ornaments [dt. Ornamente] pg. 84 pg. 246 pg. 75 pg. 233, 246
Accidentals for chords pg. 87 pg. 93 pg. 198 pg. 133
...including octaves pg. 90
...including seconds pg. 90 pg. 134
Accidentals in double-stemmed writing pg. 90 pg. 134
Symbols for Quarter-Tones [dt. Vierteltöne] pg. 94 pg. 67 pg. 145
Symbols for other Micro-Tones [dt. Mikrotöne] pg. 96 pg. 70
Key signatures [dt. Tonart-Vorzeichnung], and placement
pg. 91 pg. 85, 96 pg. 81, 254 pg. 135
...key changes and cancellation, also at line breaks pg. 92 pg. 97 pg. 254 pg. 46 pg. 139
Key signatures in modern style (polytonal/new keys) pg. 93 pg. 141
Key signatures in old styles pg. 136
Dynamic [dt. Lautstärke] symbols, design and placement pg. 101 pg. 103 pg. 46, 238 pg. 16, 31 pg. 250, 252
..."niente" / "al niente" pg. 108 pg. 18
...indicated by size of note head pg. 18 pg. 256
...indicated by tabulatura notation pg. 257
...indicated by numbers pg. 257
"subito" symbol/text pg. 107 pg. 19 pg. 255
cresc. and dim. hairpins [dt. Gabeln] pg. 103 pg. 105 pg. 239 pg. 251
Hairpins and line break pg. 104 pg. 275 pg. 255
Cresc. and Dim. / distributed text version pg. 106 pg. 250, 253
Additional qualifying text pg. 106 pg. 251
Slurs [dt. Bindebögen]
...different semantics, depending from context
pg. 35 pg. 265
...positon relative to notes (1 part) pg. 109 pg. 80 pg. 48 pg. 36 pg. 266
...curve calculation pg. 210, 400
...positon relative to stem ends (>1 part) pg. 111 pg. 82 pg. 347
...w.r.t. staves pg. 110 pg. 226
...w.r.t. other articulations pg. 121 pg. 83 pg. 75 pg. 269
...and line break pg. 112 pg. 82 pg. 228 pg. 37
slurs and tied notes pg. 113 pg. 81 pg. 70, 206, 237 pg. 36 pg. 267
nested / connected slurs pg. 113 pg. 35, 39 pg. 273
dotted slurs pg. 113 pg. 35 pg. 272, 348
slurs on chords pg. 114 pg. 83 pg. 206 pg. 39, 167 pg. 268
Articulation marks [dt. Artikulationszeichen]
...different kinds and their meaning
pg. 114 pg. 99 pg. 47, 75 pg. 4 pg. 260
Schoenberg stress marks pg. 115 pg. 100 pg. 4 pg. 271
Repeated articulation / simile pg. 116 pg. 66 pg. 33
Placement (stem or notehead) pg. 117 pg. 99 pg. 232 pg. 5 pg. 264 double-stemmed writing pg. 117 pg. 101 pg. 342
...together with slurs pg. 121 pg. 84 pg. 236 pg. 6, 42 pg. 269
...together with seconds pg. 209
Grace Notes [dt. Vorschlagsnoten] and Appoggiatura and placement
pg. 125 pg. 108 pg. 107, 246 pg. 21, 42, 49, 50 pg. 89, 238
...alignment (with bar lines, parallel parts) pg. 128 pg. 239
...execution before/on the beat pg. 128
Arpeggiated chords [dt. Arpeggien]
basic design, direction indication
pg. 131 pg. 3 pg. 242
...changing dynamics during arpeggio pg. 132 pg. 243
...spelled-out arpeggios, with ties pg. 133 pg. 4 pg. 241
...changing speed pg. 4
Ornament symbols [dt. Verzierungen] pg. 46, 59, 64, 245 pg. 245
Trills [dt. Triller]
...symbols and placing
pg. 134 pg. 110 pg. 245 pg. 75 pg. 67, 232
Trills lines pg. 136 pg. 110 pg. 246 pg. 25, 75 pg. 232
...and line breaks pg. 137 pg. 246, 275 pg. 77
Starting and finishing notes pg. 138 pg. 111 pg. 75, 77 pg. 233
Specifying the trilling pitch pg. 138 pg. 111 pg. 75 pg. 233
Timbral trills pg. 77
Varying speed pg. 139
Glissando, symbol, add. text and placement pg. 140 pg. 19, 63 pg. 243, 374
portamento (= short glissando) pg. 140 pg. 20, 64
glissando with line breaks, clef changes, accidentals pg. 142
...with unspec. start or end pg. 142 pg. 20, 64 pg. 244
...starting/ending midway in note duration pg. 144
...with start/intermediate/end notes pg. 144 pg. 64
...over composite duration pg. 145 pg. 21 pg. 73
...with articulation pg. 146
...with contour line pg. 146 pg. 21, 64
Vibrato, indicated by text pg. 146 pg. 25, 74, 80
...with contour line pg. 147 pg. 26, 71, 80
Time Signatures [dt. Taktangabe]
...dimension of symbols and placing
pg. 152 pg. 49, 104 pg. 177 pg. 148
...intermediate changes (incl. line breaks) pg. 152 pg. 254 pg. 46, 146 pg. 157
Beaming rules w.r.t. ruling metre pg. 153 pg. 49 pg. 168 pg. 12, 110 pg. 81
...further inner grouping pg. 156 pg. 14, 110, 113 pg. 84
...fractional beams in dotted rhythms pg. 157 pg. 12 pg. 84
"Rhythmic" vs. "Metric" beaming, discussion of concepts pg. 114 pg. 91
Beams crossing bar lines pg. 158 pg. 112, 115 pg. 90
Whole-Bar rests pg. 159 pg. 28 pg. 65, 123 pg. 45, 47, 135 pg. 97
Whole-Bar notes pg. 41 pg. 121 pg. 45, 47, 135
...shortened notation (for whole bar rests/notes) pg. 66, 123 pg. 136 pg. 98
Grouping of rests w.r.t. metre pg. 160 pg. 29, 50 pg. 133 pg. 99
Using dotted rests pg. 161 pg. 30 pg. 133 pg. 100, 102, 119
notes accross the beat /
... ties vs. syncopations
pg. 166, 170 pg. 50 pg. 111, 146 pg. 121
... ties vs. dots pg. 146 pg. 120
Cross metrics [dt. Poly-Metrik] / playing different of writing
by accents/brackets/(dotted bar lines)/beaming
pg. 171 pg. 115 pg. 91, 171, 217
Note sequence without time signatures [dt. Ohne Taktangabe] pg. 609, 611
Dual time signatures / interchangeable metres
Metres of variable Stress /
Alternating Metres /
Compound Metres
pg. 174, 178 pg. 114 pg. 158, 175
Non-power-2 as denominators pg. 180
Noteheads as denominators pg. 182 pg. 179
fractional numerators/denominators pg. 180 pg. 175
Polymetre with coinciding bar lines pg. 174 pg. 170
Polymetre with shifting bar lines pg. 175, 577 pg. 171
Poly-tempo pg. 177 pg. 119
Conductor signs/Metronom marks/Synchronization events pg. 179, 617 pg. 159 pg. 177
Tempo indication [dt. Tempo-Angabe] pg. 182 pg. 106 pg. 32, 145 pg. 276
Metronomic tempo indication pg. 183 pg. 106 pg. 128 pg. 276
Tempo gradually changing pg. 184 pg. 106 pg. 279
Tempo equation pg. 183, 185 pg. 106 pg. 127 pg. 158, 280
Caesura and Comma pg. 187 pg. 107 pg. 128 pg. 105
Fermata on notes and bar lines pg. 187 pg. 107 pg. 49, 257 pg. 43, 128 pg. 106
General Pause pg. 190
...where to put the tuple indication horizontally
pg. 193 pg. 41 pg. 29 pg. 212
...using simple numbers pg. 193 pg. 41 pg. 302 pg. 27, 129, 132 pg. 187 compound time [dt. ungerade Takte] pg. 204 pg. 44 pg. 188 proportion indication pg. 207 pg. 132 pg. 218
...without exact equivalent (eg. in 7/8) pg. 208 "number per duration" pg. 208 pg. 132
...whether and where to put a bracket. pg. 194, 199 pg. 26, 41 pg. 212
...aligning of brackets in parallel parts pg. 196
...angle of brackets pg. 196
Where to put the tuplet symbols vertically pg. 197 pg. 27
...together with slurs pg. 198 pg. 27 double-stemmed writing pg. 199 relation to the staff pg. 199
Horizontal alignment of rhythms with tuplets pg. 200 pg. 150 pg. 187
Beaming and grouping in tuplets pg. 210 pg. 27 pg. 213
Tuplets crossing bar lines pg. 210 pg. 112 pg. 220
Let out repeating numerals pg. 215 pg. 215
Two traditions of nested tuplets / quadratic tuplets pg. 214, 203 pg. 46 pg. 130 pg. 189
Tuplets starting off-beat pg. 112 pg. 219
Hemiola pg. 129
Tremolos [dt. Tremolo]:
one note tremolos
pg. 219, 224 pg. 112 pg. 66 pg. 148 pg. 393
...symbol dimensions and placing pg. 221 pg. 112
...meaning of articulation symbol pg. 223
...over tied notes pg. 225 pg. 113 pg. 148
Two note tremolos [dt. Brille]
pg. 225 pg. 114 pg. 67 pg. 76, 149 pg. 235, 394
...symbol dimensions and placing pg. 226 pg. 114 pg. 117, 167 pg. 235
...with opposite stem direction pg. 226 pg. 151 pg. 237
...with stemless notes pg. 226 pg. 115 pg. 237
...across two (keyboard) staves pg. 227 pg. 151
...horiz. alignment of second note with parallel parts pg. 227 pg. 148, 174 pg. 151 pg. 238
...over tied notes pg. 229 varying speed pg. 124
Repetitions [dt. Wiederholungen]
Short Repetitions:
Repeated beats
pg. 230, 578 pg. 69 pg. 33 pg. 223
Repeated chords pg. 231 pg. 70 pg. 33
Repeated bars pg. 231 pg. 66 pg. 33 pg. 224
Long Repetitions:
Repeat symbols [dt. Wiederholungszeichen]
pg. 234 pg. 63 pg. 104, 120, 254 pg. 34 pg. 185, 226
...prima e seconda volta endings pg. 234, 236 pg. 64 pg. 257 pg. 34 pg. 226
bar numbering methods pg. 237, 240 pg. 299 pg. 168
...with changes of clef, time signature and key pg. 234 pg. 254 pg. 227
...and scope of intensity directives, etc. pg. 235
...small variations per repetition pg. 235
dal segno / da capo verbal jump instructions pg. 238 pg. 65, 71 pg. 49, 257 pg. 34 pg. 228

^Inh 3.5 Table of Topics Specific for Families of Instruments or Types of Notation

The following table refers to the topics specific for certain families of instruments or types of notation documents. Again, we follow the order of [gould] .

In contrast to the class of general topics in the preceding section, here we do not include the topics which are too specific to be of general interest (e.g. different stopping techniques for brass or different ways of knocking on the corpus of a harp !-). We collect only those topics which are also of general interest, which is at about the half of all material.

question/topic [gould] [vinci] [wanske] [stone] [readNotation]
flutter tongue [dt. Flatterzunge] pg. 247 pg. 25, 188 pg. 349
Transposition/Enharmonic Simplification pg. 251 pg. 340
Harmonics/Multiphonics pg. 257 pg. 192
Mutes/Stopps pg. 263 pg. 195, 200 pg. 359
Symbols for instruments/beaters
[dt. Symbole für Instrumente und Schlegel]
pg. 275 pg. 206 pg. 366, 378
Relation of staves/instruments/players/hands pg. 276
Two note tremolos (simplified notation for Marimba etc.) pg. 278
Different forms of note heads for instruments pg. 282 pg. 219 pg. 365
Non-standard staves pg. 282 pg. 23, 215 pg. 363, 368
Dry instrument rhythms pg. 289 pg. 220
Laissez-vibrer and damping pg. 289 pg. 220 pg. 369
Timpani glissandi pg. 296 pg. 374
Drum rolls [dt. Trommelwirbel] pg. 297 pg. 221, 225 pg. 371, 373
(Partly also for Harp, Guitar, Marimba, etc)
Relation of staves/instruments/hands pg. 303
Stem direction for hand allocation pg. 305 pg. 191, 208 pg. 304
Hand crossing, by text or brackets [dt. Handverteilung] pg. 306 pg. 260 pg. 302
Voice leading [dt. Stimmführung] (also in ensemble score) pg. 307 pg. 218
unisons sharing note heads pg. 307 pg. 308
unisons with black (beamed) and white note head (also guitar!) pg. 307 pg. 177 pg. 309
Tied notes between staves pg. 308 pg. 273 pg. 311
Tied spelling for fingering pg. 310
Fingering pg. 308 pg. 302 pg. 316
Slur crossing slur pg. 315
Free Part writing [dt. freier Stimmensatz]
(stem sharing/introducing parts/chords with some tied notes)
pg. 310
...sharing/omitting rests pg. 311, 318 pg. 307
>2 parts in one stave pg. 313 pg. 175 pg. 305
common beams between different staves/hands pg. 314 pg. 193 pg. 307, 308
common rests between both lines pg. 318 pg. 170 ????
placing tuplet indication pg. 319
slurs across staves pg. 321 pg. 208 pg. 314
placing dynamics pg. 323 pg. 210 pg. 31 pg. 252, 254, 313
...putting shared dynamics between staves pg. 323 pg. 209, 241 pg. 31 pg. 252
placing octave signs pg. 324
glissandi pg. 326
cluster pg. 326 pg. 259 pg. 74, 320
stave layout
(four hands, two pianos, more than 2 staves)
pg. 329 pg. 257 pg. 30, 300, 312
... pedaling
pg. 332 pg. 25, 269 pg. 317
Silently depressed keys pg. 338 pg. 261, 272 pg. 319
Catch Reverberation pg. 338 pg. 272
Harmonics pg. 339 pg. 261
Played inside the piano pg. 339 pg. 262 pg. 322
Preparation pg. 341
Organ stave layout pg. 342 pg. 250 pg. 6, 274 pg. 35, 183, 312
...manual,coupling and register indication pg. 344 pg. 277, 278
...rhythmic registration pg. 279
...pedal marks pg. 347 pg. 278 pg. 316
held and released key notation pg. 274
mechanically held keys pg. 348 pg. 276
Harp relation of staves/registers/hands pg. 351
...tuning and enharmonic spelling pg. 352 pg. 244 pg. 324
...crossing and parallel glissandi pg. 358 pg. 236 pg. 328
...pedal glissandi pg. 359 pg. 243 pg. 329
...harmonics pg. 366 pg. 239 pg. 331
Guitar strings and fingering pg. 373
... harmonics pg. 384
... scordatura pg. 388
Strings: string indication pg. 394 pg. 392
... bariolage pg. 395 pg. 390
... fingering pg. 396
... double-stopping [dt. Doppelgriffe] pg. 396 pg. 310 pg. 384
... triple- and quadruple-stopping [dt. Drei-/Vierfachgriffe] pg. 398 pg. 309 pg. 384, 389
... using two staves pg. 399
... bowing marks [dt. Strichbezeichnung] pg. 405 pg. 401
... pizzicato pg. 408 pg. 312 pg. 391, 399
... harmonics pg. 413 pg. 311 pg. 385
... scordatura pg. 424
Avoid double crosses pg. 392
Vocals: staves' layout amd clefs pg. 433, 462 pg. 290
...position of dynamics/articulation/expr. marks pg. 434 pg. 295 pg. 296
...syllabic beaming pg. 435 pg. 169, 306 pg. 293 pg. 293
...syllabic slurs / placement pg. 435 pg. 296 pg. 297
...placing text pg. 437 pg. 299
...speech notation [dt. Sprechstimme] pg. 456 pg. 297, 304 pg. 72, 298
General Score Topics
Bar numbers [dt. Taktnummerierung] pg. 484, 490 pg. 299 pg. 169
Rehearsal Marks [dt. Studienziffer] pg. 485 pg. 168 pg. 443
Between Movements [dt. Satzübergänge] pg. 486
Principal Part [dt. Hauptstimme] pg. 496 pg. 17 pg. 283
Vi-De [dt. Strich] pg. 496
ossia pg. 497 pg. 67
Orchestra score order [dt. Anordnung der Orchesterpartitur] pg. 511 pg. 251 pg. 170
Separating instrumental sections [dt. Instrumentengruppen absetzen] pg. 518, 520 pg. 14 pg. 247 pg. 7 pg. 30, 183, 422
System dividers ("//") pg. 521 pg. 249
First page shows all instrumtents of this movement pg. 521 pg. 284 pg. 435
Stave sharing [dt. Mehrstimmige Systeme] pg. 525
Divided Strings [dt. Geteilte Streicher] pg. 536, 584 pg. 280
voice indication by diagonal lines [dt. Stimmweiser] pg. 128
Parts [dt. Orchesterstimmen]
...multiple rests [dt. Pausentakte] pg. 564, 580 pg. 29 pg. 287 pg. 136 pg. 102
...abbreviations must be resolved pg. 287
...cues [dt. Stichnoten] pg. 566 pg. 109 pg. 288 pg. 49, 51, 160 pg. 439
Clusters by ensembles, spelled out in parts pg. 58
Transposition in general pg. 251, 505, 545 pg. 71, 199 pg. 340, 356
Electroacoustic Music [dt. Elektroakustische Musik]
What to specify in a preface. pg. 591
Roles and function of notation. pg. 592 pg. 316
Starting/Stopping playback tracks pg. 593, 602
Notation of played-back contents for synchronizing
(pitch cues, graphical, proportional, text description)
pg. 593 pg. 317
Dynamics for electronic sounds pg. 598
Keyboard controling samples pg. 601
Delay Lines [dt. Echo-Schaltungen] pg. 603
Program Changes [dt.Programmwechsel] pg. 604
Continuous Controlers [dt. analoge Regler] pg. 604
Freedom and Choice
Cadenzas and ad libitum passages pg. 610
Independent Parts / Explicit (Re-)Synchronization pg. 613
Independent Repetition pg. 621 pg. 24, 154
Free Placing in a defined time-span pg. 628 pg. 157 pg. 220
Proportional Spacing [dt. Strecken-Notation] pg. 629, 636 pg. 24, 96, 136 pg. 72
...for sustained notes and glissandi [dt. für Notendauern und Glissandi] pg. 632 pg. 26, 71
Approximate pitch [dt. ungefähre Tonhöhe] pg. 640 pg. 66
Choices and Alternatives [dt. freie Auswahl] pg. 643 pg. 152
Choices from dynamic ranges pg. 17
(Purely) graphical notation pg. 103

^Inh 4 References

Carl Dalhaus
Notenschrift heute
in: [darmstadt65]

Györgi Ligeti
Neue Notation -- Kommunikationsmittel oder Selbstzweck?
in: [darmstadt65]

K. Hader
Aus der Werkstatt eines Notenstechers
Wien, 1948

Darmstädter Beiträge zur Neuen Musik
Notation Neuer Musik
Ernst Thomas(Hrsg.)
Schott, Mainz, 1965

Gardner Read
Music Notation : A Manual of Modern Practice
Taplinger, New York, 1979
ISBN 0-8008-5453-5

Kurt Stone
Notation in the Twentieth Century : A Practical Guidebook
Norton, New York, 1980
ISBN 0-393-95053-0

Erhard Karkoschka
Das Schriftbild der Neuen Musik
New York, 1984

Donald Alvin Byrd
Music Notation By Computer
Indiana University, Bloomington, 1984

Gardner Read
Source Book of Proposed Music Notation Reforms
Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1987
ISBN 0-313-25446-X

Ted Ross
The Art of Music Engraving and Processing
Hansen Books, New York, 1987

George Heussenstamm
The Norton Manual of Music Notation
W.W.Norton Company, New York, London, 1987
ISBN 0-393-95526-5

Helene Wanske
Musiknotation -- Von der Syntax der Notenstichs zum EDV-gesteuerten Notensatz
Schott, Mainz,, 1988
ISBN 3-7957-2886-X

John Grover
A Computer Oriented Description of Music Notation
Unversity of Oslo, Dpt of Computer Science, Oslo, 1989

Gardner Read
20th-century Microtonal Notation
Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, 1990

Albert C. Vinci
Die Notenschrift : Grundlagen der traditionellen Musiknotation
Bärenreiter, Kassel, 1991
ISBN 3-7618-0900-X

Gardner Read
Pictographic Score Notation
Greenwood Press, Westport, 1998
ISBN 0-313-30469-6

Martin Gieseking
Code-basierte Generierung interaktiver Notengraphik
Universität Osnabrück, Osnabrück, 2000
ISBN 3-923486-30-8

Anderas Jaschinski(Hrsg.)
Bärenreiter, Kassel, 2001
ISBN 3-7618-1625-1

Elaine Gould
Behind Bars : the definitive guide to music notation
Faber, London, 2011
ISBN 0-571-51456-1

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